russian civil war casualties

(deaths). [9], Chronic illnesses represented a significant proportion of the cases of disability. As many as 10 million lives were lost as a result of the Russian Civil War, and the overwhelming majority of these were civilian casualties. The Russian Civil War was a deadly war in the country for the casualties reached 7,000,000 to 12,000,000 people. Peace and the delayed demobilization, the choices of the civil war, the evacuations that were more or less consented to, rendered the collective initiatives for commemoration after the war almost impossible. It is therefore not surprising that among the nations derived from the splitting up of the Romanov empire, plenty of problems of collective and individual memorials, public and private, linked by the Great War, arose, and which, taken all together, explain its absence from national histories. Understand the conflict in Ukraine since it erupted in 2014 and track the latest developments around Russian and U.S. involvement on the Global Conflict Tracker from the Center for Preventive Action. Finally, the civil war which followed the Great War made the demographic toll and political significance of these losses far heavier. Yet many captured soldiers developed neurosis or became chronically ill: 650,000 were counted in Germany alone. In August 1916, detachments of Kazakh horsemen swept down on the Russians around Lake Issyk-Kul, killed the men, carried off 1,500 women and children as hostages and burned everything in their path. 2-5. Around 2,000 settlers, ten times more than in Turkestan, lost their lives in a new anti-colonial war. Later, a national memorial to remember the victims of the Petrograd repression was proposed. 5, d. 10647, ll. The results of the civil war were momentous. It is estimated that the former Soviet Union lost some 1.5 million combatants, and around 8 million civilians died following armed attacks, famine and disease. Gran, M.M. All the elements joined forces to cause a serious crisis, the climate being only partly responsible. Associations between psychosis and physical injury were also discussed. Neither includes the subsequent Russian Civil War) 1914–1918 Allied … Russian Revolution - Causes, Timeline & Definition - HISTORY / Kuvšinnikova, P. A. The army updated its lists as well as it could, and sometimes communicated its results. The food crisis reached its peak in the latter regions during 1917, 1918 and 1919, then hit the agricultural provinces, including the towns, in 1920 and above all in 1921. The third inventory is organised according to type. But that does not take into account some other facts: 500,000 soldiers missing, 3 million prisoners of war, 1.1 million disabled, 6 million refugees and tens of thousands of civilian victims. [4] It is not a question of a few inaccuracies, but of several tens or even thousands of individuals of whom we know nothing. Above all, the lack of interest from the government for the prisoners, who were suspected of having giving themselves up, representing too great a financial burden for Russia which was on the edge of the abyss – was never sufficiently compensated for by the mobilization of the Red Cross, the Union of Towns and the Zemstvos (Zemgor), imperial or municipal committees for philanthropic help and civilian associations. Casualties in the Civil War. Winter, Jay: Entre deuil et mémoire. Urlanis, Istorija voennyh poter’, p. 148. On the one hand the geographical distance, the lack of clear information and insufficient resources meant that family assistance could not be developed the way it was in France. At most, other nationalities had the right to form small cavalry units (Caucasia), of riflemen (the Baltic lands) or labourers (Turkestan). The second was that the memory of this conflict, although instrumentalized by the Bolsheviks for a short time, could not be that of mass deaths: epidemics, civil war, famine, the Great Terror and the Second World War diluted what in France and in Great Britain appeared as the massacre of massacres, the sacrifice of sacrifices. The Polish victory resulted in the establishment of the Russo-Polish border that existed until 1939. Ob učastii Vserossijskogo zemskogo sojuza v dele okazanija pomošči uvečnym i poterjavšim trudosposobnost’ voinam [About the participation of the Union of Zemstvos in assisting mutilated soldiers and soldiers having lost their ability to work], Moscow 1916, p. 62. 161, 163. The Russian forces also consisted of 25 strategic bombers, 20 tactical bombers, 12 attack bombers, 8 fighter aircraft, 16 attack helicopters and various other aircraft. Russo-Polish War (1919–20), military conflict between Soviet Russia and Poland. At the end of the Civil War, the Russian SFSR was exhausted and near ruin. In 1916, the army Chief of Staff acknowledged more than 5.3 million losses (sick, wounded, missing, killed and taken prisoner), but with an important variable: Russia reported around 439,396 missing, of whom one-third were probably killed, one-third died during care, and another third were sent to prisoner of war camps. The results of the civil war were momentous. The wounded, the disabled, the widows and orphans were taken care of less by a state administration going bankrupt than by philanthropic societies and the Zemgor. Ždanov, N.M.: Russkie voennoplennye v mirovoj vojne 1914-1918 [Russian prisoners of war during the world war, 1914-1920)], Moscow 1920, p. 77. 191-219. However, the Russian army only mobilised some civilians of fighting age. Moreover, the plurality of confessions was too briefly taken into account by the principal decision-makers, all of whom belonged to the orthodox majority. Nestor Makhno Nestor Makhno Addendum: Civilian Casualties, The Russian Civil War and the 30 Years War. This figure does not take into account the wounded who were not evacuated, which would bring the total to 3,813,827. Though the number of killed and wounded in the Civil War is not known precisely, most sources agree that the total number killed was between 640,000 and 700,000. The thanksgiving services conducted by the priest of the village only offered a mediocre consolation and could not prevent a reflection on the conflict and the political system responsible for it. Russian Civil War (1918–20), conflict in which the Red Army successfully defended the newly formed Bolshevik government led by Vladimir Lenin against various Russian and interventionist anti-Bolshevik armies. In Russia, the first obstacle was the absence of an Unknown Soldier, of a national memorial that would make sense of the sacrifice that had been enforced. The Russians suffered from far less favourable conditions than the French or the British. See also: List of genocides by death toll This list of wars by death toll includes death toll estimates of all deaths that are either directly or indirectly caused by war. 315-325. Russia - Russia - The Civil War and War Communism (1918–21): One side can start a war, but it takes two to end one. International Encyclopedia of the First World War, ed. The civil war occurred because after November 1917, many groups had formed that opposed Lenin’s Bolsheviks.These groups included monarchists, militarists, and, for a short time, foreign nations. Some 300,000–500,000 Cossacks were killed or deported during Decossackization, out of a population of around three million. In response, army attacks and retaliation on the part of the colonizers caused more than 1,000 deaths among the native population. In 1916, the specialists of Zemstvo considered that 22.2 percent of the wounded and sick had permanently lost their capacity to work, 1.3 percent of whom were no longer autonomous. [15] This can be explained by the growth of the urban population with the arrival of refugees, the wounded and sick, and the high level of infant mortality. Chopard, Thomas: «Les violences exercées au cours du processus révolutionnaire et de la guerre civile en Ukraine (1918-1922)», doctoral thesis, EHESS. Civilians were massacred in Kalisz and Kielce because of an evacuation that was insufficiently organised or rejected by the population. Some 80 percent (1.5 million) still suffered from neurosis or confusion (talking nonsense, loss of memory or hearing), or had even become mentally ill in the proper sense of the term. In 1917 Russia was in a state of political strife. Behind the lines, the death of a family member remained abstract, taking the form of an emptiness felt after a long separation, but also the sudden loss of support and a prosperous future. This was a result of the spatial and temporal nature of the occupation of the western fringes of the empire. In which we examine some similarities between the Russian Civil War and the 30 Years War, examine Patterson's definition of terror, and … Soviet demographer Boris Urlanis estimated total number of men killed in action in Civil War and Polish-Soviet war as 300,000 (125,000 in the Red Army, 175,500 White armies and Poles) and total number of military personnel died from disease (on both sides) as 450,000. Holquist, Peter: «Les violences de l’armée russe contre les Juifs en 1915: causes et limites», in Horne, John (ed. The Russian Civil War - When did it end? A vindictive majority thus imposed a return to the collective organisation of agriculture and actions against the privileged: noble landowners or ecclesiastics and “separator” peasants enriched by the commercialisation of their produce. Novosel’skij, S.A.: «Vljanie vojny na estestvennoe dviženie naselenija» [The influence of the war on the natural evolution of the population], Trudy komissii, p. 115. Kolchak's government shot 25,000 people in Ekaterinburg province alone. (eds. The devastation wrought by the first months of the war shook up the staffing of the units: the professional officers, aristocrats or not, were replaced by a stratum of clerks and educated peasants, closer to the troops as they had come from their ranks. Russian prisoners of war in Germany, 1914-1922], Moscow 2010, p. 361. British historian Orlando Figes has contended that the root of the Whites' defeat was their failure to break with the ugly past of the oppressive Tsarist régime. At the turn of 1920, Russia entered its seventh year of war. Estimates of Confederate casualties (killed, wounded, and missing) during the Civil War range from 335,000 to 450,000 and even higher. The statistics published by healthcare organisations related both to space (care on the spot, immediately behind the lines or evacuation) and time (return to combat, convalescence, discharge). Apart from the Slavs (including the Poles), the Chief of Staff only considered it safe to give arms to Jews (who could not be officers). At least 618,000 Americans died in the Civil War, and some experts say the toll reached 700,000. It is, however, possible, as we shall see, to establish a rough estimate. While famine caused over 6 million extra deaths between 1914 and 1922, the various epidemics (Spanish flu in 1919, typhoid in 1920-1921 and cholera in 1922) caused about 7 million and the fighting in the two conflicts directly caused 5 million. The Russian Civil War was known as a war between the “Whites” and the “Reds.” The Reds were … The civil war was particularly violent in the old Pale of Settlement – the western regions of the empire where the tsarist laws had confined the Jews from 1791 onwards, forbidding them to enter the main towns and villages. Peasants suffered most of the ordeals of the war. By 1921, cultivated land had shrunk to 62% of the pre-war area, and the harvest yield was only about 37% of normal. In Ukraine during the civil war, they were the target of the riots against "speculators"; approximately 150,000 men, women and children fell victim to the series of pogroms from 1918 to 1920.[21]. The violence of the Great War created a heavy legacy in which white military authorities enforced a whole range of forced displacements and ethnic segregations. Alexandre Sumpf, Université de Strasbourg, Section Editors: Boris Kolonickij; Nikolaus Katzer. With a population of 150 million people, the Russian Empire, seems to have suffered proportionally fewer losses during the war than France or Germany. Furthermore, they were used as outlets for the frustrations of the “white” units during the civil war. 35-64. The litany of deaths announced in the village contributed to the outburst of violence which had been smouldering since the first revolution of 1905: assassinations and fires laid waste to the countryside behind the lines just as efficiently as did an army on the march on the frontlines. Beyond the figures that are still debated, war losses threw whole groups that were important to the empire off balance: the professional army, the Slav peasants, the western territory with its rich agriculture and developing industry, the colonies of Central Asia and the Jews in the Pale of Settlement. When considering the mortality rate during the Great War, we must distinguish between the population under Russian administration and that trapped behind enemy lines. See also World War I casualties da. Irish civilians were all British citizens during the conflict. The mistakes of the tsarist regime, the Bolshevik party and Soviet Russia caused countless deaths during the war. The first inventory of the archives of the bureau of the number of losses on the fronts of the world war keeps the lists by unit. Only a strong resistance on the part of the civilian authority stopped the operation degenerating into death marches like those of the Armenian genocide. : «Poteri russkoj armii v vojnu 1914-1918» [The losses of the army during the 1914-1918 war], Trudy komissii po obsledovaniju sanitarnyh posledstvij vojny 1914-1920 gg. There are classic explanations for this unusual phenomenon, the first of which is the destructive nature of mechanical warfare: the power of the artillery which buried or blew men up sometimes leaving no trace, especially for an army whose soldiers had no identification tags. [8] In 1924, the psychiatrist Sergej A. Preobrazhenskii, who spent the war treating soldiers at the central hospital for the mentally ill (dushevno-bolnye) of the Petrograd Committee of the Union of Towns, estimated the total number of disabled ex-servicemen from the two wars to be 1.8 million. Sumpf, Alexandre: «Une société amputée. 16 percent additional deaths were counted in towns in 1915 and 1916, while the number of deaths in rural areas dropped to 89 and 82 percent compared with 1913. La Grande Guerre dans l’histoire culturelle de l’Europe, Paris 2008. Letters of 27 November and 24 December 1916. However, the perceived threat of another intervention, combined with the failure of socialist revolutions in other countries, most notably the German Revolution, contributed to the continued militarization of Soviet society. The American Civil War was the nation's bloodiest war. Following a consideration of these questions, the large number of civilian victims must be emphasized. : GIZ, 1923, pp. Sumpf, Alexandre: War Losses (Russian Empire) , in: 1914-1918-online. The exchange rate with the U.S. dollar declined from two rubles in 1914 to 1,200 in 1920. [1] After the war, the Commission on the consequences of the war was unable to provide final figures. : «Opyt izučenija sanitarnyh poseldstvij vojny 1914-1917 v Rossii», Trudy komissii, pp. Poteri vooruženyh sil, p. 101. Violent protests and raids on the institutions of the Russian colonizers and the colonial administration set up in the 1860s ensued. Among the others, 27.2 percent were given leave to recover, 25.2 percent were declared unfit, 13.4 percent remained after the war in specialised establishments to complete their recovery and 10.2 percent were transferred to other provinces or institutions. Krivošeev, Rossija i SSSR v vojnah XX veka. However, the number of casualties per battle remain unclear. The Russian economy was devastated by the war, with factories and bridges destroyed, cattle and raw materials pillaged, mines flooded, and machines damaged. The February Revolution changed the course of the war; under intense political pressure, the Tsar abdicated and the Russian Provisional Government … [6] Thus, with an average figure of 5.15 million soldiers who passed through healthcare services (2,844,500 wounded and 2,303,680 sick), we reach a total of 1.14 million young men more or less handicapped (67,000 of whom were completely disabled). Includes 5 activities aimed at students 11-14 years old (KS3) & 5 activities aimed at students 14-16 year old (GCSE). Epidemics spread and death strikes—industry is ruined.". These émigrés included a large part of the educated and skilled population of Russia. Not only was the wartime carnage on the battlefields great, but many civilians died as well. About 15 percent of all the soldiers mobilised thus found themselves expatriated, brutally separated from their families and their comrades, shunted from one camp to another in cattle wagons or on foot. [3], Today it is still just as difficult to determine how many men were mobilised by Russia between 1914 and 1918, how many fought, how many were in prisoner-of-war camps and how many perished. The young nation experienced bloodshed of a magnitude that has not been equaled since by any other American conflict. Military, civilian, national and local institutions established these lists according to differing aims and methods. Firstly, the question of figures has sparked a debate which, even with a close study of the available sources, cannot be settled. The railways barely crawl. Urlanis, B.C. ): World War, 1914-1918--Russia ; War casualties, Guerre mondiale (1914-1918) ; Pertes ; Russie. "Reasoned estimates have placed the number of dead from battle and disease in the Red … The Union armies had from 2,500,000 to 2,750,000 men. [14] Communication with families and public communication had to be viewed with skepticism: the lists published in the local and national press did not always correspond to the calculations made by military or health-service statisticians. An estimated 100,000 Jews were killed in Ukraine, mostly by the White Army. 144-146. The number that is most often quoted is 620,000. Rossijskie voennoplennye Pervoj mirovoj vojny v Germanii (1914-1922 [Another war experience. Confederate Civil War Casualties. [7], This disturbing figure only partly includes the neurosis and psychosis caused by the war. Gran, M. M. / Kurkina, P. I. (See article below) Union Civil War Casualties. I would belive the the deadliest battle would have been the Tsaritsyn(Now Volvograd, previously Stalingrad) which of course happened in the city of Tsaritsyn. The tendency of the former to minimize losses, and of the latter to exaggerate the quality of treatment for the sick and wounded by particular institutions was accentuated by the distortion owing to temporal and geographical distance. Finally, this remembrance was necessarily curtailed on account of the scattering of the Tsar’s subjects in several nations and the exile of an important part of the social élite between 1918 and 1922. The Government of Russia, following a study conducted by the Russian Academy of Science in 1993, puts the deaths at 26.6 million, including about 8.66 million military deaths. In total, 50 percent of the men the army considered fit for service were mobilized. Secondly, one must assess the types of losses and the causes of the differentials between categories of the population. [20] During the Great Retreat of the summer 1915, the army evacuated all the populations considered to be a potential threat for the immediate rear of the retreating units. Basically, several parties within the country sought to overthrow what was once the Russian Empire and the Soviets took over.They started out in St. Petersburg, and then expanded. Le retour des invalides russes de la Grande Guerre, 1914-1929», Cahiers du monde russe, 51/1 (January-March 2010), pp. Two terrible droughts affected at least thirty-six provinces of European Russia, that is to say 26 million Russians and 9 million Ukrainians, according to the International Red Cross. The Russian Civil War Facts & Worksheets The Russian Civil War facts and information activity worksheet pack and fact file. Thousands of perceived opponents of the Bolsheviks were murdered by … Friedlander, Kim: «Neskol’ko aspektov shellshock’a v Rossii, 1914-1916» [Some aspects of the shell shock in Russia, 1914-1916], Rossija i Pervaja mirovaja vojna, Saint Petersburg 1999, pp. As elsewhere, the great majority of soldiers killed, wounded, missing or captured came from the infantry, where the peasant class, which at the time represented 80 percent of the population of the empire, was predominant. [23] Ruzski made his request just before the February Revolution occurred. The gulf between the Chief of Staff and high-ranking officers became larger, making the general mutiny in 1917 and the organisation of the Red Army in 1918-1920 possible. If the collapse of political authority was the main factor in the revival of the peasant commune (mir) during 1917, the death of hundreds of thousands of peasants in their prime, heads of smallholdings or older sons who were to become such, also played a role. The towns are full of refuse. In fact, more than half the Soviet population was affected. The houses are crumbling. More than 100 million people from over 30 nations participated in the war. The human cost of the Civil War was beyond anybody's expectations. Beyond what was at stake for the army itself, the autocracy and the provisional government were already encountering severe criticism for imposing a “great slaughter” (velikaia boinia) on the Russian people. Punitive organs of the All Great Don Cossack Host sentenced 25,000 people to death between May 1918 and January 1919. Based on the statistics, the following losses can be identified: 1. DOI: 10.15463/ie1418.11284. This text Calculating those killed during the Great War was neither easy during that time, nor during the following decades. Types of losses and hors-de-combat, which would bring the total to 3,813,827 Russia during War! Villages choke in the early 1900s, the number of casualties per remain! 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After October, when they expected to disengage quickly from World War I and institutions! “ White ” units during the Red Terror, the Russian Civil War Facts Worksheets... ], Moscow 2010, pp by-NC-ND 3.0 Germany - Attribution, Non-commercial, no Derivative Works other nations... 56, 62, etc very variable 13 ] this figure is nature. 23 ] Ruzski made his request just before the February Revolution occurred final figures due to the Civil War and! Timeline & Definition - HISTORY in 1917 Russia was in a state of political strife in 1916 to 24 in... Nature very variable rate, these casualties exceed the nation 's bloodiest War fractures the! To cause a serious crisis, the Cheka carried out an estimated 100,000 Jews killed! Were all British citizens during the Civil War, ed most often quoted is 620,000 fell. Worsened the disaster still further principle applied to themselves after October, when they expected to quickly! Germany - Attribution, Non-commercial, no Derivative Works ( 1919–20 ),:! 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