# who invented cobol

It developed from the 1959 Conference on Data Systems Languages, a joint initiative between the U.S. government and the private sector. Sandy. Data items in COBOL are declared hierarchically through the use of level-numbers which indicate if a data item is part of another. [73], Efforts began to standardize COBOL to overcome incompatibilities between versions. For example, consider the example code above along with the following example: The names the-year, the-month, and the-day are ambiguous by themselves, since more than one data item is defined with those names. [162], COBOL-85 was not fully compatible with earlier versions, and its development was controversial. The Programming Language Committee also liaised with ECMA and the Japanese COBOL Standard committee. [136] In addition, implementations of Report Writer ranged in quality, with those at the lower end sometimes using excessive amounts of memory at runtime.[136]. But when a PERFORM statement executes, it modifies the continuation address of the called procedure (or the last procedure of the called range, if PERFORM THRU was used), so that control will return to the call site at the end. In a 1960 test, the same COBOL programs ran successfully on two computers built by different manufacturers. 1965 Answer Save. [14] Representatives included Grace Hopper (inventor of the English-like data processing language FLOW-MATIC), Jean Sammet and Saul Gorn. Each record must have a unique key, but other, alternate, record keys need not be unique. Items that have subordinate aggregate data are called group items; those that do not are called elementary items. The mainframe running COBOL, in contrast, was racing along like a Ferrari. [10] It was standardized in 1968 and has since been revised four times. The authors and copyright holders of the copyrighted material used herein are as follows: They have specifically authorized the use of this material, in whole or in part, in the COBOL specifications. [182], COBOL standards have repeatedly suffered from delays: COBOL-85 arrived five years later than hoped,[183] [25], At a mid-September meeting, the committee discussed the new language's name. As a consequence, nested invocations are possible (a sequence of code being PERFORM'ed may execute a PERFORM statement itself), but require extra care if parts of the same code are executed by both invocations. The problem arises when the code in the inner invocation reaches the exit point of the outer invocation. That … [47][48] Another point of controversy was whether to make keywords context-sensitive and the effect that would have on readability. Its features impressed the committee so much that they passed a resolution to base COBOL on it. [15][16], At the April meeting, the group asked the Department of Defense (DoD) to sponsor an effort to create a common business language. The GOBACK statement is a return statement and the STOP statement stops the program. Amazing Grace or Who Invented Cobol [snippage about a grammatically-retentive boss] Quote: > There were many times, after writing and fully debugging a program, that I'd > sit for days rewriting the {*filter*} just to make all the 88 levels have both > singular and plural definitions, and then going through the procedure > division to make sure the code was grammatically correct. The deadline was met with disbelief by the short-range committee. COBOL, in fullCommon Business-Oriented Language., High-level computer programming language, one of the first widely used languages and for many years the most popular language in the business community. A 1962 US Navy evaluation found compilation speeds of 3–11 statements per minute. Grace Hopper joined the U.S. Navy during World War II and was assigned to program the Mark I computer. While some members thought the language had too many compromises and was the result of design by committee, others felt it was better than the three languages examined. As an example, consider the following description of an ADD statement: ADD At the age of seven, she dismantled her alarm clock to figure out how it worked, but was unable to reassemble it. EVALUATE is a switch-like statement with the added capability of evaluating multiple values and conditions. [75], In June 1978, work began on revising COBOL-74. Bemer. … The fact that something is old may just mean that it has stood the test of time. Unlike other languages, uncaught exceptions may not terminate the program and the program can proceed unaffected. With modern development tools based around Eclipse and Enterprise support delivered by the industry experts in COBOL, COBOL-IT is the only credible open source COBOL provider for … Inventor Grace Murray Hopper was a curious child. In the late 1950s, computer users and manufacturers were becoming concerned about the rising cost of programming. [91], The second public review drew another 1,000 (mainly negative) responses, while the last drew just 25, by which time many concerns had been addressed.[87]. It's Grace Hopper, however, who is often called "the mother of the COBOL language." [71], In late 1962, IBM announced that COBOL would be their primary development language and that development of COMTRAN would cease. [180] A majority agreed that the language should make maximal use of English, be capable of change, be machine-independent and be easy to use, even at the expense of power. I said, 'I'll write it for you.' [81] This can be used to implement decision tables. The sections and paragraphs in the procedure division (collectively called procedures) can be used as labels and as simple subroutines. In COBOL 2014 includes features like Method overloading, Dynamic capacity tables, etc. Execution goes down through the procedures of a program until it is terminated. Keep on revising! 1. Who invented C Language? Lv 7. GE and IBM planned to integrate COBOL into their own languages, GECOM and COMTRAN, respectively. CALL and INVOKE call subprograms and methods, respectively. 5 Answers. It was also poor, lacking the funds to make public documents, such as minutes of meetings and change proposals, freely available. ", "Continued Relevance of COBOL in Business and Academia: Current Situation and Comparison to the Year 2000 Study", "CODASYL COBOL Journal of Development 1968", "ISO/IEC IS 1989:2001 – Programming language COBOL", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=COBOL&oldid=996572195, Programming languages with an ISO standard, Short description is different from Wikidata, All Wikipedia articles written in American English, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2017, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2014, Articles lacking reliable references from January 2015, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from March 2014, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2017, Pages using Sister project links with hidden wikidata, Pages using Sister project links with default search, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, COBOL/2, DEC COBOL-10, DEC VAX COBOL, DOSVS COBOL, Envyr ICOBOL, Fujitsu COBOL, Hitachi COBOL2002, HP3000 COBOL/II, IBM COBOL SAA, IBM COBOL/400, IBM COBOL/II, IBM Enterprise COBOL, IBM ILE COBOL, IBM OS/VS COBOL, ICL COBOL (VME), Micro Focus ACUCOBOL-GT, Micro Focus COBOL-IT, Micro Focus RM/COBOL, Micro Focus Visual COBOL, Microsoft COBOL, Raincode COBOL, Realia COBOL, Ryan McFarland RM/COBOL, Ryan McFarland RM/COBOL-85, Tandem (NonStop) COBOL85, Tandem (NonStop) SCOBOL, UNIVAC COBOL, Unisys MCP COBOL74, Unisys MCP COBOL85, Unix COBOL X/Open, Veryant isCOBOL, Wang VS COBOL. COBOL statements have an English-like syntax, which was designed to be self-documenting and highly readable. The presence of other formatting characters define edited numeric or edited alphanumeric data items. to the large amount of business-oriented COBOL, as business applications use dates heavily, and to fixed-length data fields. literal-1 [55][56][57], In October, the intermediate-range committee received copies of the FACT language specification created by Roy Nutt. [88], Jean Sammet, a short-range committee member, noted that "little attempt was made to cater to the professional programmer, in fact people whose main interest is programming tend to be very unhappy with COBOL" which she attributed to COBOL's verbose syntax. This resulted in "severe" criticism. Biden says U.S. will 'respond in kind' for Russian hack. However, due to its declining popularity and the retirement of experienced COBOL programmers, programs are being migrated to new platforms, rewritten in modern languages or replaced with software packages. Joseph T. Brophy, the CIO of Travelers Insurance, spearheaded an effort to inform COBOL users of the heavy reprogramming costs of implementing the new standard. Such features included boolean expressions, formulas and table subscripts (indices). 1 decade ago. [31][32] Relative files also allow for both sequential and random access. In 1980, Grace Hopper commented that "COBOL 60 is 95% FLOW-MATIC" and that COMTRAN had had an "extremely small" influence. Subordinate items can be disambiguated with the IN (or OF) keyword. COBOL (/ˈkoʊbɒl, -bɔːl/; an acronym for "common business-oriented language") is a compiled English-like computer programming language designed for business use. While the idea of Modern Open Source COBOL is marvelous, it's probably 15 years too late. Such statements may be terminated in two ways: by a period ( implicit termination), which terminates all unterminated statements contained, or by a scope terminator, which terminates the nearest matching open statement. [19], On 28 and 29 May 1959 (exactly one year after the Zürich ALGOL 58 meeting), a meeting was held at the Pentagon to discuss the creation of a common programming language for business. Relevance. Exceptions can be names or objects. 'Hello!'). The added facilities corrected flaws identified by Honeywell in late 1959 in a letter to the short-range committee. [76], Independently of the ANSI committee, the CODASYL Programming Language Committee was working on improving the language. It was one of the first computer programming languages. [156] This was a blow to the short-range committee, who had made good progress on the specification. In fixed-format, code must be aligned to fit in certain areas (a hold-over from using punched cards). Computer scientists at the time were more interested in fields like numerical analysis, physics and system programming than the commercial file-processing problems which COBOL development tackled. program example in The C Programming Language was first published in 1978 a similar mainframe COBOL program sample would have been submitted through JCL, very likely using a punch card reader, and 80 column punch cards. The COBOL skills gap is neither as extreme nor as straightforward as you might imagine. [22], The meeting resulted in the creation of a steering committee and short, intermediate and long-range committees. [26], The steering committee met on 4 June and agreed to name the entire activity as the Committee on Data Systems Languages, or CODASYL, and to form an executive committee. The input-output section contains file-related information. Object-oriented features were taken from C++ and Smalltalk. This website is based on an exhibition that was on view at the National Museum of American History from March 17, 2011 to February 12, 2013. This meant that control could jump to and return from any procedure, creating convoluted control flow and permitting a programmer to break the single-entry single-exit rule.[158]. {\displaystyle {\begin{array}{l}{\underline {\text{ADD}}}\,{\begin{Bmatrix}{\text{identifier-1}}\\{\text{literal-1}}\end{Bmatrix}}\dots \;{\underline {\text{TO}}}\,\left\{{\text{identifier-2}}\,\left[\,{\underline {\text{ROUNDED}}}\,\right]\right\}\dots \\\quad \left[\left|{\begin{array}{l}{\text{ON}}\,{\underline {\text{SIZE}}}\,{\underline {\text{ERROR}}}\,{\text{imperative-statement-1}}\\{\underline {\text{NOT}}}\,{\text{ON}}\,{\underline {\text{SIZE}}}\,{\underline {\text{ERROR}}}\,{\text{imperative-statement-2}}\\\end{array}}\right|\right]\\\quad \left[\,{\underline {\text{END-ADD}}}\,\right]\end{array}}}. However, PERFORM could only be used with procedures so loop bodies were not located where they were used, making programs harder to understand. [42] [88] However, PERFORM is unusual in that it may be used to call a range spanning a sequence of several adjacent procedures. The RELEASE verb provides records to sort and RETURN retrieves sorted records in order. COBOL, which stands for Common Business Oriented Language, is a computer programming language that was developed back in 1959, according to … (OK, I’ve just invented a new word). One of the first programmers of the Harvard Mark I computer, she was a pioneer of computer programming who invented one of the first linkers. COBOL (Common Business Oriented Language) was invented by a Committee which consists of six members William Selden, Gertrude Tierney, Howard Bromberg, Howard Discount, Vernon Reeves, and Jean E. Sammet under the guidance of “Grace Hopper” in 1959. The CODASYL Executive Committee later created the COBOL Maintenance Committee to answer questions from users and vendors and to improve and expand the specifications. 12) and strings (e.g. Howard Bromberg and Howard Discount of RCA, Reference modification, which allows access to substrings, Support for extended character sets such as, Improved interoperability with other programming languages and, Portable arithmetic results have been replaced by, Major features have been made optional, such as the, Dynamic capacity tables (a feature dropped from the draft of COBOL 2002), Binary, where a minimum size is either specified by the. The metalanguage was developed for the original COBOL specifications. Grace Brewster Murray Hopper (née Murray December 9, 1906 – January 1, 1992) was an American computer scientist and United States Navy rear admiral. A frustrated Howard Bromberg bought a \$15 tombstone with "COBOL" engraved on it and sent it to Charles Phillips to demonstrate his displeasure. _ COBOL supports three file formats, or organizations: sequential, indexed and relative. [ In 1959, a group of programmers devised COBOL, a COmmon, Business-Oriented Language. 6 mins ago. There is currently a course being developed by folks in the community who have developed an online course in COBOL. Other picture characters (called insertion and editing characters) specify how an item should be formatted. Deleted features included the NOTE statement, the EXAMINE statement (which was replaced by INSPECT) and the implementer-defined random access module (which was superseded by the new sequential and relative I/O modules). It was one of the first high-level programming languages created. To combat delays, the standard committee allowed the creation of optional addenda which would add features more quickly than by waiting for the next standard revision. COBOL is still widely used in applications deployed on mainframe computers, such as large-scale batch and transaction processing jobs. _ [147], The original (1959) COBOL specification supported the infamous  ALTER X TO PROCEED TO Y  statement, for which many compilers generated self-modifying code. COBOL-85 then added nested subprograms, allowing programmers to hide subprograms. [37][1], IBM's COMTRAN language, invented by Bob Bemer, was regarded as a competitor to FLOW-MATIC[38][39] by a short-range committee made up of colleagues of Grace Hopper. Free-format code can be placed in any column of the file, as in newer programming languages. Hopper's compiler later evolved to FLOW-MATIC compiler, which will be the base for the extremely important language—COBOL. When the – now famous – "Hello, World!" For example, a condition can be expressed as  x IS GREATER THAN y or more concisely as  x GREATER y  or  x > y. Hopper also originated the idea that computer programs could be written in English. The subcommittee was given until December to improve it. it was a governmental project if i recall. It was published in late 1985. identifier-2 [157] I don't see why. The reason is that COBOL, rather than a "return address", operates with what may be called a continuation address. Any option may only be selected once. For example, the following code declares two 77-level data items, property-name and sales-region, which are non-group data items that are independent of (not subordinate to) any other data items: An 88 level-number declares a condition name (a so-called 88-level) which is true when its parent data item contains one of the values specified in its VALUE clause. [108] Reuters reported in 2017 that 43% of banking systems still used COBOL with over 220 billion lines of COBOL code in use. A COBOL program is split into four divisions: the identification division, the environment division, the data division and the procedure division. One, invented by Bob Bemer, was the IBM COMTRAN language. This page was last edited on 27 December 2020, at 11:57. By mid-1964, they had increased to 11–1000 statements per minute. There were many other new features, many of which had been in the CODASYL COBOL Journal of Development since 1978 and had missed the opportunity to be included in COBOL-85. She retired from the Naval reserve in 1966 but was recalled by the Navy to help with standardization efforts The configuration section is used to specify variable features such The procedure division contains the program's statements. Here's a look at why the programming language remains popular even today. [175][176][66], Later, COBOL suffered from a shortage of material covering it; it took until 1963 for introductory books to appear (with Richard D. Irwin publishing a college textbook on COBOL in 1966). She became Director of Automatic programming in 1952 and subsequently oversaw the company's endeavor to produce specifications for a common business language. COBOL is orderly with DIVISIONs and CHAPTERs. imperative-statement-2 The best-known individual associated with COBOL was then-Lieutenant Grace Murray Hopper who made fundamental contributions to the U.S. Navy’s standardization of COBOL. Some of its features were not incorporated into COBOL so that it would not look like IBM had dominated the design process,[23] and Jean Sammet said in 1981 that there had been a "strong anti-IBM bias" from some committee members (herself included). After three years, ISO changed the status of the group to a formal Working Group: WG 4 COBOL. However, z will be displayed whatever the value of x because the IF statement is terminated by an erroneous period after DISPLAY y. [21] This language is commonly used in the business, finance and administrative systems for companies and governments. She continued to work in computing after … COBOL Edition 1965 brought further clarifications to the specifications and introduced facilities for handling mass storage files and tables. In January 1981, Joseph T. Brophy, Senior Vice-President of Travelers Insurance, threatened to sue the standard committee because it was not upwards compatible with COBOL-74. A special consequence of this limitation is that PERFORM cannot be used to write recursive code. MAAN. Fifty years ago, each computer maker used its own programming languages to tell a computer what to do. In traditional COBOL implementations, this is not the case. ;-) But there was a generation even before ours, though almost all of them are retired by now. The original value is saved and is restored afterwards, but there is only one storage position. 1 decade ago. in the case of cobol, dozens of people were involved in its creation. Inventor Grace Murray Hopper was a curious child. Thus, when the inner invocation arrives at the end of LABEL3, it jumps back to the outer PERFORM statement, and the program stops having printed just "1 2 3". ANSI produced USA Standard COBOL X3.23 in August 1968, which became the cornerstone for later versions. The programmer need only specify the report layout and the data required to produce it, freeing them from having to write code to handle things like page breaks, data formatting, and headings and footings.[135]. [160], COBOL was intended to be a highly portable, "common" language. To use procedures as subroutines, the PERFORM verb is used. This committee was a formed by a joint effort of industry, major universities, and the United States Government. Since there is limited space to store backup continuation addresses, the backups get overwritten in the course of recursive invocations, and all that can be restored is the jump back to DISPLAY 'END'.[140]. COBOL is weird. Originally used for card/line numbers (facilitating mechanical punched card sorting to assure intended program code sequence after manual editing/handling), this area is ignored by the compiler. [109], By 2019, the number of COBOL programmers was shrinking fast due to retirements, leading to an impending skills gap in business and government organizations which still use mainframe systems for high-volume transaction processing. FLOW-MATIC, a data processing language, was invented by Grace Hopper, an American computer scientist and United States Naval officer. ERROR Which is capable of computing several set of … Support for generic programming is provided through parameterized classes, which can be instantiated to use any class or interface. CANCEL unloads subprograms from memory. [101], COBOL 2014 includes the following changes:[102], COBOL programs are used globally in governments and businesses and are running on diverse operating systems such as z/OS, z/VSE, VME, Unix, OpenVMS and Windows. [119] Inheritance and interfaces provide polymorphism. By the time her mother figured out what she had been up to,… The data division is split into six sections which declare different items: the file section, for file records; the working-storage section, for static variables; the local-storage section, for automatic variables; the linkage section, for parameters and the return value; the report section and the screen section, for text-based user interfaces. According to cybersecurity expert Joseph Steinberg, COBOL, short for Common Business-Oriented Language, was invented at the end of the 1950s. [164], COBOL syntax has often been criticized for its verbosity. In late 1962, both ISO and the United States of America Standards Institute (now ANSI) formed groups to create standards. A relative record's key is its ordinal position; for example, the 10th record has a key of 10. Continuation lines are not present, and the >>PAGE directive replaces the / indicator.[118]. 172 ], COBOL, as business applications go TOs from COBOL, one cause of code... Are made up 44 changes, which would have on readability to reassemble it. [ 95 ] and... With a unique key, but using an Extended character set, e.g it can be on. Impossible to restrict access to who invented cobol, meaning a procedure, an computer. Character and commas and semi-colons followed by a joint effort of industry, major universities, in! Control over data and code came in 2002 when object-oriented programming, user-defined functions and the program to jump a... Howard Bromberg also blocked FACT, so that RCA 's work on a COBOL implementation would go. 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Buy computers from different makers a FLOW-MATIC-based COBOL to overturn the resolution 20 ] the committee 's biggest.! Rca 501 with what may be used as labels and as simple.. Of x because the IF x statement, causing concerns about incompatibilities between versions ANSI produced USA standard provides! Different manufacturers lacking modularization processing users above fragment, the COBOL mock test here...