Of the three other parties that won seats in the Duma, two of them--Just Russia and the Liberal Democratic Party--are considered to have a pro-Kremlin orientation. Legislation has further affirmed the power of the federal government over the regions. After studying each branch, you find out the following information about the executive, legislative, and judicial branches of the Russian government. Excellence. Owing to a lack of assertiveness by the central government, Russia’s administrative divisions—oblasti (regions), minority republics, okruga (autonomous districts), kraya (territories), federal cities (Moscow and St. Petersburg), and the one autonomous oblast—exerted considerable power in the initial years after the passage of the 1993 constitution. In 2004, a reform, which determined the government duties, was enacted where it consists of five federal services, 17 ministers and 30 government agencies. The world’s largest country by far, Russia has played a correspondingly large role in international affairs. The Siberia district unites the remainder of the West Siberia economic region and all of East Siberia. ), Total fertility rate: 1,41 children born/woman (2009 est. Which cookies and scripts are used and how they impact your visit is specified on the left. Russia is a federation of republics, provinces, territories, and districts, all controlled by the government in Moscow. The legislative branch of Russian government has two branches: the 166 member Federation Council and the 450 member State Duma. Have a cookie The constitution gives equal power to each of the country’s administrative divisions in the Federal Assembly. Currency: Russian ruble (RUR) National GDP: $2,383,000,000,000 Government of Russia Type of Government: federation Independence: 24 August 1991 (from Soviet Union) Divisions: The country of Russia is divided up into a complex system of 83 regions called "federal subjects." The reign of Peter I (the Great; 1689–1725), The reign of Catherine II (the Great; 1762–96), Government administration under Catherine, Education and social change in the 18th century, The Civil War and War Communism (1918–21), The Gorbachev era: perestroika and glasnost, Ethnic relations and Russia’s “near-abroad”, Consolidation of power, Syria, and campaign against the West. Decisions on laws require at least a 51% vote. ), Population growth rate: -0,467% (2009 est. Under the new constitution the Federal Assembly became the country’s legislature. In 2000 Pres. Russia's eastern Kamchatka Peninsula, which extends far into the Pacific Ocean, includes more than 150 volcanoes. The Southern district includes portions of the Volga and North Caucasus economic regions; the North Caucasus district encompasses the remaining units of the latter economic region. SolarWinds: What We Know About Russia's Latest Alleged Hack Of U.S. Government Microsoft says it has identified 40 government agencies, companies and think tanks that have been infiltrated. This site uses functional cookies and external scripts to improve your experience. Three-quarters of the Russian population are orthodox Christian but other religions practiced include Islam, Judaism, Buddhism, Protestantism, and Catholicism. Russia is a federal presidential republic The executive power is split between the President and the Prime Minister, but the President is the dominant figure. An abortive coup in August 1991 by hard-liners opposed to Gorbachev’s reforms led to the collapse of most Soviet government organizations, the abolition of the Communist Party’s leading role in government, and the dissolution of the party itself. His successor, Dmitry Medvedev, continued this policy: as a part of Moscow’s ongoing efforts to quell separatism and Islamic militancy in the Caucasus, he created an eighth federal district there in 2010. View Images. It boasts the second largest coal reserve. 15 December 2020 Meeting of the Government Coordination Council to control the incidence of the novel coronavirus infection in the Russian Federation Mikhail Mishustin: “We have reached a very important phase in countering the coronavirus infection by beginning the large-scale vaccination of our citizens all over the country. There have been a spew of scientists, artists and writers from Russia. There is no vice pre… Moscow and St. Petersburg have particularly strong local governments, with both possessing a tax base and government structure that dwarf the country’s other regions. This makes the country very susceptible to boom and bust cycles. In 2008 an amendment to the constitution, to take effect with the 2012 election, extended the presidential term from four to six years. ), HIV/AIDS adult prevalence rate: 1,1% (2007 est. ), Urban population: 73% of total population (2008), Rate of urbanization: -0,5% annual rate of change (2005-2010 est. The districts’ presidential envoys were given the power to implement federal law and to coordinate communication between the president and the regional governors. The Central district unites the city of Moscow with all administrative divisions within the Central and Central Black Earth economic regions. For constitutional amendments, however, a 75% vote is required. Photograph by Dmitryminin, Dreamstime NOTE: These settings will only apply to the browser and device you are currently using. ), Infant mortality rate: total 10,56 deaths/1,000 live births; male 12,08 deaths/1,000 births; female 8,94 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est. That said, Trump's friendly rhetoric helpful to Putin's interests. It was characterized by a power struggle between the executive and legislative branches, primarily over issues of constitutional authority and the pace and direction of democratic and economic reform. Vladimir Putin created seven federal districts above the regional level to increase the central government’s power over the regions (see discussion below). Many Baltic States would declare their independence and break away from Russia. ), Life expectancy: total population 66,03 years; male 59,33 years; female 73,14 years (2009 est. In June 1990 the Congress of the Russian republic proclaimed that Russian laws took precedence over Soviet laws, and the following year Boris Yeltsin became the republic’s first democratically elected president. The Federation Council represents the matters of the federal subjects of Russia, the political divisions of the country. Indeed, in the elections that were held, there was only a single slate of candidates, the great majority of whom were in effect chosen by the Communist Party. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. On December 12, 1993, three-fifths of Russian voters ratified a new constitution proposed by Yeltsin, and representatives were elected to a new legislature. Russian government types over history are incredibly diverse, as the country seems to have exhausted virtually all their options. Both the mother … ), Median age: 38,4 years (male 35,2 years/female 41,6 years) (2009 est. While most are not actively erupting, many are considered dangerous due to their eruptive history and proximity to population centers and air travel corridors. When the legislature fails to pass the president’s legislative initiatives, he may issue decrees that have the force of law. Random Russia facts. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Local councils in smaller communities are commonly rubber-stamp agencies, accountable to the city administrator, who is appointed by the regional governor. Under the new constitution the president, who is elected in a national vote and cannot serve more than two terms consecutively, is vested with significant powers. was subject to a series of Soviet constitutions (1918, 1924, 1936, 1977), under which it nominally was a sovereign socialist state within (after 1936) a federal structure. Russia Day 12 June (1990) Constitution: adopted 12 December 1993 Legal system: Based on civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction Suffrage: 18 years of age, universal Executive branch: 1. Russian and Nato foreign ministers set up Nato-Russia Council with equal role in decision-making on terrorism and other security threats. Finally, the Far East district is congruent with the Far East economic region. A guide to the Russian government and Russia’s political system. Chief of state: President Dmitriy Anatolyevich Medvedev (since 7 May 2008). For the first time, elections to these bodies presented voters with a choice of candidates, including noncommunists, though the Communist Party continued to dominate the system. ), People living with HIV/AIDS: 940,000 (2007 est. This guide gives key facts to expats about the Russian government and the country’s political system. Expatica helps make your expat journey the experience you've always wanted. In the mid-1990s municipal government was restructured. note: estimates are of practicing worshipers; Russia has large populations of non-practicing believers and non-believers, a legacy of over seven decades of Soviet rule, Literacy (age 15+ can read and write): total population 99,4% (male 99,7%/female 99,2%), School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total 14 years (male 13 years/female 14 years) (2006), Education expenditures: 3,8% of GDP (2005), Country name: conventional long form: Russian Federation; conventional short form: Russia; local long form: Rossiyskaya Federatsiya; local short form: Rossiya. A presidential veto of a bill can be overridden by the legislature with a two-thirds majority, or a bill may be altered to incorporate presidential reservations and pass with a majority vote. Russia is a huge country that is double the size … It is the second largest producer of natural gas. The Apparatus of the Government of Russia is a governmental body which administrates the activities of the government Moscow (geographic coordinates 55 45 N, 37 35 E); time zone UTC+3; daylight saving time (+1h) begins last Sunday in March and ends last Sunday in October. All legislation must first pass the State Duma before being considered by the Federation Council. pop. He was elected for a four-year term (eligible for a second term), however, the term length was extended in 2008 to six years, going into effect in the elections of 2012. Presidential Administration: provides staff and policy support to the president, drafts presidential decrees, and coordinates policy among government agencies. During the Soviet era the Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic (the R.S.F.S.R.) July 1918 - Tsar Nicolas II and the royal family are executed by the Bolsheviks, in Yekatrinburg, Russia. The elite include … Thereafter, the pace of change accelerated. 8, 121099 Moscowmailing address: PSC-77, APO AE 09721; telephone:  (495) 728-5000FAX:  (495) 728-5090; consulate(s) general: Saint Petersburg, Vladivostok, Yekaterinburg. For example, the regional governors and their deputies were prohibited from representing their region in the Federation Council on the grounds that their sitting in the Federation Council violated the principle of the separation of powers; however, under a compromise, both the legislative and executive branch of each region sent a member to the Federation Council. The president is also commander in chief of the armed forces and can declare martial law or a state of emergency. In addition to autocracy, Russia’s political history contains absolutism, patrimonialism, and Orthodox Christianity. In 2011 Russia became the world’s leading oil producer. The budgets of regional governments also are overburdened by pensions. The members of the government are the Prime Minister, the deputy prime ministers, and the federal ministers. Russia, officially the Russian Federation, Rus. The Russian landscape varies from desert to frozen coastline, tall mountains to giant marshes. In practice, however, the guidance served more as a directive, as the president was able to use the envoys to enforce presidential authority over the regional governments. Conflicts came to a head in September 1993 when President Yeltsin dissolved the Russian parliament (the Congress of People’s Deputies and the Supreme Soviet); some deputies and their allies revolted and were suppressed only through military intervention. With a two-thirds majority (and approval by the Russian Constitutional Court), the legislature may remove the president from office for treason or other serious criminal offenses. Under the Russian constitution the central government retains significant authority, but regional and local governments have been given an array of powers. Administrative divisions:46 oblasts (oblastey, singular – oblast), 21 republics (respublik, singular – respublika), 4 autonomous okrugs (avtonomnykh okrugov, singular – avtonomnyy okrug), 9 krays (krayev, singular – kray), 2 federal cities (goroda, singular – gorod), and 1 autonomous oblast (avtonomnaya oblast’), Oblasts: Amur (Blagoveshchensk), Arkhangel’sk, Astrakhan’, Belgorod, Bryansk, Chelyabinsk, Irkutsk, Ivanovo, Kaliningrad, Kaluga, Kemerovo, Kirov, Kostroma, Kurgan, Kursk, Leningrad, Lipetsk, Magadan, Moscow, Murmansk, Nizhniy Novgorod, Novgorod, Novosibirsk, Omsk, Orenburg, Orel, Penza, Pskov, Rostov, Ryazan’, Sakhalin (Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk), Samara, Saratov, Smolensk, Sverdlovsk (Yekaterinburg), Tambov, Tomsk, Tula, Tver’, Tyumen’, Ul’yanovsk, Vladimir, Volgograd, Vologda, Voronezh, Yaroslavl’, Republics: Adygeya (Maykop), Altay (Gorno-Altaysk), Bashkortostan (Ufa),Buryatiya (Ulan-Ude), Chechnya (Groznyy), Chuvashiya (Cheboksary), Dagestan (Makhachkala), Ingushetiya (Magas), Kabardino-Balkariya (Nal’chik), Kalmykiya (Elista), Karachayevo-Cherkesiya (Cherkessk), Kareliya (Petrozavodsk), Khakasiya (Abakan), Komi (Syktyvkar), Mariy-El (Yoshkar-Ola), Mordoviya (Saransk), North Ossetia (Vladikavkaz), Sakha [Yakutiya] (Yakutsk), Tatarstan (Kazan’), Tyva (Kyzyl), Udmurtiya (Izhevsk), Autonomous okrugs: Chukotka (Anadyr’), Khanty-Mansi (Khanty-Mansiysk), Nenets (Nar’yan-Mar), Yamalo-Nenets (Salekhard)krays: Altay (Barnaul), Kamchatka (Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy), Khabarovsk, Krasnodar, Krasnoyarsk, Perm’, Primorskiy [Maritime] (Vladivostok), Stavropol’, Zabaykal’sk (Chita), Federal cities: Moscow [Moskva], Saint Petersburg [Sankt-Peterburg], Autonomous oblast: Yevrey [Jewish] (Birobidzhan), Independence: 24 August 1991 (from the Soviet Union), Legal system: Based on civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, Legislative branch: bicameral Federal Assembly or Federalnoye Sobraniye consists of an upper house, the Federation Council or Sovet Federatsii (168 seats; as of July 2000, members appointed by the top executive and legislative officials in each of the 84 federal administrative units – oblasts, krays, republics, autonomous okrugs and oblasts, and the federal cities of Moscow and Saint Petersburg; serve four-year terms) and a lower house, the State Duma or Gosudarstvennaya Duma (450 seats; as of 2007, all members elected by proportional representation from party lists winning at least 7% of the vote; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms), Elections: State Duma – last held 2 December 2007 (next to be held in December 2011), Election results: State Duma – United Russia 64.3%, CPRF 11.5%, LDPR 8.1%, Just Russia 7.7%, other 8.4%; total seats by party – United Russia 315, CPRF 57, LDPR 40, Just Russia 38, Judicial branch: Constitutional Court; Supreme Court; Supreme Arbitration Court; judges for all courts are appointed for life by the Federation Council on the recommendation of the president, Political parties and leaders: A Just Russia [Sergey Mironov]; Communist Party of the Russian Federation or CPRF [Gennadiy Andreyevich Zyganov]; Liberal Democratic Party of Russia or LDPR [Vladimir Volfovich Zhirinovkiy]; Patriots of Russia [Gennadiy Semigin]; People’s Union [Sergey Baburin]; Right Cause [Leonid Yakovlevich Gozman, Boris Yuriyevich Titov, and Georgiy Georgiyevich Bovt] (registration pending; formed from merger of Union of Right Forces, Democratic Party of Russia, and Civic Force); United Russia [Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin]; Yabloko Party [Sergey Sergeyevich Mitrokhin], Political pressure groups and leaders: Association of Citizens with Initiative of Russia (TIGR); Confederation of Labour of Russia (KTR); Federation of Independent Labour Unions of Russia; Freedom of Choice Interregional Organization of Automobilists; Glasnost Defence Foundation; Golos Association in Defence of Voters’ Rights; Greenpeace Russia; Human Rights Watch (Russian chapter); Institute for Collective Action; Memorial (human rights group); Movement Against Illegal Migration; Pamjat (preservation of historical monuments and recording of history); Russian Orthodox Church; Russian Federation of Car Owners; Russian-Chechen Friendship Society; SOVA Analytical-Information Centre; Union of the Committees of Soldiers’ Mothers; World Wildlife Fund (Russian chapter), International organisation participation: APEC, Arctic Council, ARF, ASEAN (dialogue partner), BIS, BSEC, CBSS, CE, CERN (observer), CICA, CIS, CSTO, EAEC, EAPC, EBRD, FATF, G-20, G-8, GCTU, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt (signatory), ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, LAIA (observer), MIGA, MINURCAT, MINURSO, MONUC, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD (accession state), OIC (observer), OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, PFP, SCO, UN, UN Security Council, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNITAR, UNMIL, UNMIS, UNOCI, UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer), ZC, Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Sergey Ivanovich Kislyak; chancery: 2650 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007; telephone:  (202) 298-5700, 5701, 5704, 5708; fax:  (202) 298-5735; consulate(s) general: Houston, New York, San Francisco, Seattle, Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador John R. 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